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第二十期杂志选文——《医药世界》

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    发表于 2016-7-31 20:40:35 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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    World of Medicine
    医药世界
    QQ图片20160731203504.png
    Walk Briskly for Better Prostate Health
    快步走有益于前列腺健康
    If diagnosed with prostate cancer, men who walk quickly fare better than those who walk slowly. University of California, San Francisco, scientists examined the blood vessels of prostate tumors in 572 men and analyzed data on their physical activity before their diagnosis. Patients who walked the fastest— between 3.3 and 4.5 miles per hour—had healthier-looking blood vessels, suggestive of less aggressive tumors, compared with the slowest walkers, who clocked in between 1.5 and 2.5 miles per hour.
    若被诊断为前列腺癌,步速较快男人的情况相较于比步速慢的会好许多。来自旧金山加利福利亚大学的科学家们检查了572个男人的前列腺肿瘤血管,并对他们被确诊之前的身体活动数据进行了分析。步行较快的病人(每小时走3.3到4.5英里),血管看起来要健康的多,侵袭性肿瘤会比慢步者(每小时行走1.5到2.5英里)少很多。
    Slash Sugar for A Longer Life
    长寿的秘诀---少糖
    Not-so-sweet news: People who got at least 25 percent of their calories from added sugar—mainly in sweetened drinks like soda, grain-based desserts like cookies, and fruit juice—were almost three times more likely to die of heart problems than those who consumed less than 10 percent of daily calories from sugar, according to a JAMA Internal Medicine study of more than 11,000 people based on 18 years of data. Those who got more than 15 percent of calories from added sugar—the equivalent of about two cans of soda—were about 20 percent more likely to die of heart-related issues.
    不太妙的消息:据《美国医学会杂志》一项对11000多人的18年数据的医学研究显示:那些至少有25%的卡洛里是从糖分中摄取的人(大部分是从加糖饮料如苏打、用谷物做成的甜点如饼干以及果汁)患心脏病死亡的几率要比那些每天从糖中摄取少于10%卡路里的人高三倍。那些从糖中摄取卡洛里量多于15%的人(大约跟两听苏打饮料相等),死于心脏相关疾病的几率要高出20%。
    Best and Worst Antibiotics For Swimmer’s Ear
    治疗游泳者耳病最优与最劣的抗生素
    Nearly one third of doctors prescribe oral antibiotics to treat swimmer’s ear, but new guidelines from the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery instead recommend antibiotic eardrops for most cases. The drops can deliver up to 1,000 times more concentration of antibiotic in the ear canal, making them more effective. Recent studies have shown that most routinely prescribed oral antibiotics don’t kill even the most common culprit of swimmer’s ear, a bacterium named Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    大概有三分之一的医生在治疗游泳者耳病时会开出口服抗生素。但是来自美国头颈外科学会的研究更推介对大多数病例使用抗生素耳药水。滴液可以向耳道提供达1000倍浓度的抗生素,见效更快。近期的研究显示大部分情况下老一套的处方口服抗生素甚至不能消灭游泳者耳病中最普通的“杀手”:一种名为绿脓杆菌的细菌。
    Worrying Together Creates Calm
    焦虑时有人作伴会释放压力
    Venting about stress can make you feel better—but only if it’s to someone who feels just as anxious. Researchers from the University of Southern California tasked 52 women with giving a videotaped speech. Before speaking, the participants were paired up and urged to express their feelings. Researchers assessed the women’s emotional states and measured levels of the stress hormone cortisol before, during, and after the speeches. When each woman in the pair had similar emotions, discussing their feelings made both less stressed. But when one felt nervous and the other felt calm, communicating did not minimize the worriers’ anxiety.
    将压力释放会让你心情变好——但这必须是在他人与你同样焦虑的时候。南加州大学的研究者通过录音给52个女性布置了任务。在布置任务之前,参与者们被两两分组,她们急于抒发自己的感受。在发言之前,发言期间和发言后,研究人员分别评估了妇女的情绪状态和应激激素皮质醇的水平。当每组女性有着相同情绪时,讨论她们的感觉时,彼此的压力都得到了缓解。但是,当有一个人感到紧张和另一个人比较淡定时,沟通并没能减少紧张者的焦虑。
    See Your Lab Reports Sooner
    很快你将能目睹你的检测报告
    A new federal rule lets all U.S. patients directly access their lab test results—say, regular blood tests to monitor the effects of some common meds—without going through their physicians. The Department of Health and Human Services believes the change, which took effect this April and requires full compliance by October 6, will empower patients. (On average, one out of 14 potentially worrisome outpatient lab results is not conveyed to patients, according to Cornell research.) Depending on the lab, you may be able to call, write, fax, or visit a lab’s website to learn your results. But you should still follow up with your doctor, who can help interpret results and determine whether additional testing or treatment is needed.
    一个新的联邦规则让所有的美国患者可以直接看到他们的实验室测试结果,也就是说,定期的血液测试来监控一些常用药物的影响,不用通过他们的医生来转达。美国卫生与服务部门认为这一即将在今年四月生效,十月完全实施的举措,将赋予病人们更多权利。(根据康内尔大学的研究,平均而言,有十四分之一的的门诊没有将结果给病人,着实潜在着担忧)。你可以根据实验室规定,打电话、写信、发传真或是访问实验室网站来获知你的检测结果。但是你最好还是要继续与医生沟通,医生可以帮助你解释结果并确定你是否需要额外的检测或治疗。
    Probiotics May Help Weight Loss
    益生菌有助于减肥
    Women dieters who took a particular probiotic strain twice daily lost an average of nearly ten pounds after three months, while a similar group who instead took placebo pills shed almost six pounds, according to a new study in the British Journal of Nutrition.What’s more, the probiotic takers continued to lose weight over the following three months, averaging a total loss of 11.5 pounds; the control group did not lose any more weight.
    根据英国营养学杂志最新的研究结果,女性节食者每天服用特殊的益生菌菌株,三个月后,平均瘦了将近10磅。而另外一组服用安慰剂药丸的女性减掉了大概6磅。此外,益生菌组的体重在接下来的三个月持续下降,平均每人减掉11.5磅,而对照组的体重没有再发生变化。
    Alternative Sleep Apnea Treatment
    睡眠呼吸中止症新疗法
    It’s crucial to treat sleep apnea— a disorder marked by interrupted breathing and snoring during sleep—which raises the risk of heart disease. But roughly half of patients prescribed the standard therapy (continuous positive airway pressure, or CPAP,which is administered via a mask that keeps airways open) struggle with it. Now a new implant could help some patients who don’t tolerate CPAP.Implanted surgically, the pacemaker-like device stimulates a nerve below the tongue that prevents obstruction of the airway. In a recent 12-month study in the New England Journal of Medicine,it reduced breathing pauses and raised blood-oxygen levels in over two thirds of 124 patients. The FDA has approved the device.
    治疗睡眠呼吸中止症(睡眠中呼吸与打鼾被中止而变得混乱)很重要,因为这种病会增加心脏病患病几率。但大约一半的患者规定的标准治疗(持续气道正压通气,也被称为CPAP,通过一个面罩来保持气道开放)并不能很好的治愈。现在一个新的植入管可以帮助一些讨厌CPAP的患者。植入管手术,是使用类似起搏器的设备刺激舌下神经来防止气道阻塞。根据新英格兰医学杂志最近12个月的研究,在124例病患中有三分之二的患者有效减少了呼吸暂停的情况并提高了血氧水平。美国食品和药物管理局(Food And Drug Administration)已经批准了该设备的使用。
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