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第二十四期杂志选文——《每个人都应该接受的“希波克...

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    2017-7-14 11:10
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    [LV.5]常住居民I

    发表于 2016-7-31 21:35:00 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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    Hippocratic Oaths Everyone Should Take
    每个人都应该接受的“希波克拉底誓言”
    All new doctors today still pledge to do no harm, which may be Hippocrates' most famous legacy. But much of the ancient Greek physician's wisdom applies to everyone—not just those who have medical degrees. “Hippocrates was a visionary who figured out the most important ways we can stay healthy, all of which have been proved by modern science,” says David Katz, MD, founding director of the Yale University Prevention Research Center and author of the book Disease Proof: The Remarkable Truth About What Makes Us Well.
    当代的医生们依旧起誓绝不给病人带来痛苦与危害,这也许是希波克拉底留下的最著名的珍宝。不过这位古希腊医师的智慧适用于每一个人—— 而不仅是那些得到医学学位的人。“希波克拉底是一位预言家,他提出了能够使我们保持健康的最重要的方法,而它们都得到了现代科学的验证。”耶鲁大学预防研究中心的创会理事,《预防疾病:重大的真理创造更好的我们》一书的作者——医学博士戴维·凯兹说。
    Here are five of his health rules that have stood the test of time (about 2,000 years).
    下面是经受过近两千年时间考验的五条健康守则。
    1. Walking Is Man's Best Medicine.
    1. 步行是对人类最好的疗药
    “Hippocrates did the first clinical studies by observing people and comparing their health habits,” says Brian Clement, PhD, codirector of the Hippocrates Health Institute, a nonprofit center in West Palm Beach, Florida. He noticed that “bodies grow relaxed and squat … through their sedentary lives,” which led to various illnesses. Those who walked more stayed well longer. So he often prescribed exercise.
    “希波克拉底通过观察人类和比较人们健康习惯,完成了首次医学研究,”位于佛罗里达州西棕榈滩的非盈利组织——“希波克拉底健康研究所”的主任布莱恩·克莱蒙特博士说。他注意到“久坐的生活……让体型变得肥胖和松垮,”而这是各种疾病的导火索。那些走路多的人活的更长。因此,他经常开的处方是锻炼。
    Today's TranslaTion:Dozens of studies show that even 30 minutes of walking a day lowers your risk for diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis, and certain cancers. A recent National Cancer Institute study on more than 650,000 people found that those who walked briskly for just 150 minutes a week gained an average of 3.4 years of life expectancy. “There's no drug that can give you those kinds of benefits,” says Clement.
    今日解释:很多调查都表明即使每天散步30分钟,都会降低患糖尿病、心脏病、骨质疏松症、以及某些癌症的风险。最近,国立癌症研究所通过对650000多人的研究,发现只要每周轻快散步150分钟,平均寿命就会延长3.4年。“没有任何一种药品拥有相同的功效。”克莱蒙特说。
    2.Know What Person the Disease Has Rather Than What Disease the Person Has.
    2.探求“人得何病”,不如求寻“何人得之”
    Hippocrates meticulously examined his patients' urine, stools, pus, and sweat. But he also observed their personalities, home environment, relationships, diet, and even their facial expressions before diagnosing and treating them. “He believed that it was impossible to understand illness without understanding the whole person,” says David H. Newman, MD, director of clinical research, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and author of Hippocrates' Shadow: Secrets from the House of Medicine.
    希波克拉底对病人的尿液、粪便、脓液和汗液都进行了细致检查。不过,他也观察他们的个性特征、家庭环境、人物关系、饮食状况、甚至他们在确诊和接受治疗之前的面部表情。“他相信如果不全面了解一个人,了解他得的病是不可能的。”《希波克拉底的影子:医药室的秘密》一书的作者,西奈山医学院急诊医学科临床研究主任,医学博士大卫·H·纽曼说道。
    Today's TranslaTion:Dr. Katz treats a lot of patients for obesity, and one of the first things he asks is whether they have toxic relationships, a stressful job, or poor sleep. “There's no way for these people to lose weight until they fix these issues,” he says. “You've got to find out what's setting a problem in motion, then reverse engineer it. When you treat the whole person, weight loss—and many other medical problems—becomes astonishingly easy to deal with.”
    今日解释:凯兹博士治疗过很多肥胖症患者,而他首先问病人们的一件事就是他们是否有不好的人际关系、压力过大的工作、抑或是糟糕的睡眠。“对这些人来说,除非他们解决了这些问题,否则他们不可能减肥。”他说,“你得找出来是什么引起了问题,然后回头解决它。当你从整体治疗病人时,减肥——以及其他医疗问题——将会变得令人吃惊地容易解决。“
    3.Let Food Be Thy Medicine.
    3.食材亦可为药
    Hippocrates observed that “those who are constitutionally very fat are more apt to die quickly than those who are thin” and recognized that when people ate mainly a fresh, plant-based diet, they developed fewer diseases. His primary form of treatment was usually improving a patient's diet.
    希波克拉底提出“那些身材肥胖的人比瘦子们死得更快“,同时认为人们食用新鲜的以素食为主的食物,便能减少疾病的发生。他最基本的治疗方式通常是改善病人的饮食。
    Today's TranslaTion:No matter what eating style you follow, if it's based on unprocessed foods, colorful plants, and little added sugar, you're likely to be healthier and live longer, says cardiologist Joel K. Kahn, MD, a Reader's Digestcolumnist and the author of The Holistic Heart Book.Consider this powerful research: A 2013 study of more than 7,000 people published in the New England Journal of Medicinefound that those who ate a Mediterranean-style diet were 30 percent less likely to suffer astroke or heart attack than those assigned to follow a low-fat diet. The link between food and health has to do with epigenetics, the study of how lifestyle and environment influence the expression of your genes. Processed foods with sugar, animal saturated fats and trans fats, and artificial chemicals can activate disease-causing genes that might have stayed dormant otherwise; they also lack the healthy nutrients that activate protective genes, says Dr. Kahn.
    今日解读:《读者文摘》专栏作家、同时也是《心脏功能全解》作者的心脏病专家乔伊·K·卡恩说,无论你的饮食习惯如何,如果未加工的食材、各色的庄稼、些许的添加糖是这些食物的主要来源,你就可能活得更健康、更长寿。看看这个权威的报告吧:根据2013年《新英格兰医学杂志》对超过7000人的调查证明,那些遵守地中海式食谱的人比那些遵照低脂食谱的人患中风或心脏病的概率要少30%。食物与健康之间的关系与表现遗传学有关,那是一门研究生活方式和环境如何影响人们基因的学科。卡恩博士说,加工类的含糖食品、动物饱和脂肪、反式脂肪、以及人工化学合成食品可能会激活本来处于休眠状态的致病基因;它们也缺乏刺激保护基因的营养物质。
    4.Everything in Moderation.
    4.一切都要节制
    OK, what Hippocrates really said: “Everything in excess is opposed to nature.” He recognized that the same remedy could heal in one dose but harm in a greater one. For example, he prescribed wine as part of a healthy diet and to combat pain in childbirth. But Hippocrates also observed that his patients developed gout if they continually drank to excess. When he convinced them to temper their habits, the inflammatory disease disappeared.
    好吧,希波克拉底其实是说:“在自然中,一切事物过犹不及。”他认识到相同的治疗方案可能在特定的剂量下有效,但更大的剂量就会造成伤害。比如说,他将红酒作为健康食谱的一部分,并且用来抵御在分娩过程中的疼痛。不过,希波克拉底也注意到如果病人们一直过量饮酒,就会患上痛风。而当他劝说病人们改变自己的习惯时,这种炎症性的疾病就消失了。
    Today's TranslaTion:“We all love to take good things to the extreme,” says Dr. Katz. “But exercise, water, supplements, and sleep can all be damaging if you overdo them.” Even too much kale can be harmful because it can prevent your thyroid from absorbing the iodine it needs.
    今日解读:“我们总是极限地求取美好的食物,”凯兹博士说,“但如果“量”超出了范围、运动、水分、能量补给、以及睡眠都将会对你的身体造成伤害。”就连太多的甘蓝都会伤害你,因为它可以阻止你的甲状腺吸收所需的碘。
    5.To Do Nothing Is Also a Good Remedy.
    5.“不采取手段”也是良药
    In Hippocrates' day, many quacks convinced sick people to undergo dangerous, unnecessary, and expensive procedures. “But Hippocrates believed that unless you had real evidence that a medical treatment was helpful, you shouldn't use it,” says Dr. Newman.
    在希波克拉底的时代,许多庸医都会建议病人们接受危险、毫无必要、而又昂贵的治疗过程。“但是,希波克拉底则认为:如果你没有这种医疗手段的确切有效的证据,就不要使用它。”纽曼博士说。
    Today's TranslaTion: In this age of advanced medicine, it's harder than ever for doctors to resist ordering tests, procedures, and treatments—even if they're unnecessary. “I often point out to my patients that the best diagnostic tool we have is time,” explains Dr. Katz. “If we don't know what to do, let's not just do ‘something.' Doctors have a knee-jerk reaction to order tests and procedures when they might even lead to harm.” Back pain, for example, will often resolve itself within three months with such simple remedies as ice, heat, over-the-counter pain relievers, and gentle exercise.
    今日解读:在这个医学先进的时代,对于医生们来说,尽管有些多余,但不按照“身体检查、治疗过程、治疗方法”这些步骤来进行诊疗,要比以往任何时候都要困难。“我经常告诉我的病人们,最好的诊断工具就是时间,”凯兹博士解释说,“如果我们不知道要做什么,那就‘什么'都不要做。”医生们都会下意识地安排身体检查和治疗过程,即使有时它们会导致伤害。“就拿背痛来说,通过冰敷、热敷、止痛药(无需处方就能买到)以及轻度的锻炼,经常在三个月内就能自己治愈。”
    “A patient may say, ‘Look, I'm suffering, and you have to do something,' which creates a lot of pressure on doctors,” says Richard J. Baron, MD, president of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation, a nonprofit established to improve medical professionalism. The result: pointless treatments like prescribing an antibiotic for a cold. “It certainly won't help, and it could cause an allergic reaction, a yeast infection, or dangerous diarrhea, not to mention antibiotic resistance,” says Dr. Baron.
    “有的病人可能会说,‘听着,我正在遭罪呢,你得做点什么,'而那会给医生们很大的压力,” 一个非营利的、为了提高医学专业度的、名叫“美国内科医学委员会基金会”的主席,医学博士理查德·J·拜伦说道。这样做的结果是类似于给感冒病人开抗菌素这样无用的治疗。“这当然毫无帮助,并且它可能会引起过敏反应、酵母菌感染、或者严重腹泻,更别提抗菌了。”拜伦博士说道。
    That's why it's essential that patients and doctors work together to avoid needless tests or drugs. If your doctor wants to prescribe medication at the first sign of high cholesterol or high blood pressure, ask if you can change your diet and exercise routine first, says Dr. Kahn.
    所以,病人和医生们需要相互配合,避免不必要身体检查或者药物使用。如果你的医生一看到高胆固醇或者高血压的迹象就要给你开药,问问他们你能不能从改变你的饮食习惯或者加强锻炼做起,卡恩博士说。
    The ABIM Foundation created a campaign called Choosing Wisely, in which dozens of specialty medical societies—from those of cardiologists to surgeons to gynecologists—developed lists of five procedures or tests doctors and patients should question.
    “美国内科医学委员会基金会”开展了一项叫做“明智选择”的运动,包括心脏病专家、外科医生和妇科医生在内的医学专家们列出了五条医生和病人应当质疑的治疗清单。
    注释:
    ①甘蓝被誉为对人体身体最好的蔬菜
    翻译:洛克T
    校对:小潮 Kelsey
    总监小潮
    树屋字幕组-文翻组
    翻译仅供学习交流,严禁用于商业用途

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