关注微信公众号收藏本站 If we can't live together…we're gonna die alone.如果我们不能一起活下来,就会独自死去。—— 《Lost》

树屋经典影视论坛

 找回密码
 立即注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

新浪微博登陆

只需一步, 快速开始

查看: 260|回复: 0

第三十期杂志选文——《人体微生物快速入侵周遭环境》

[复制链接]

新浪微博达人勋

  • TA的每日心情

    2017-7-14 11:10
  • 签到天数: 54 天

    连续签到: 1 天

    [LV.5]常住居民I

    发表于 2016-7-31 22:40:26 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

    登录以后才能看到帖子详情和网盘哦!

    您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?立即注册 新浪微博登陆

    x
    Human Microbes Quickly Colonize People's Surroundings
    人体微生物快速入侵周遭环境
    QQ图片20160731223737.png
    Humans are awash in microbes; they coverour skin, live in our nose and mouths, and, in any given person’s body,outnumber human cells 10 to 1. But little is known about these microorganisms,how they are passed between people and their environment, and from where theyhail.
    人体中充斥着各种微生物;它们覆盖在我们的皮肤上,生活在我们的口鼻里,而且,在每个人身上,微生物与人类细胞的比例高达10:1。然而,人们却对这些微生物了解甚微,我们不了解它们是如何在人体和外界之间传播的,也不了解它们是从哪里滋生的。
    To answer these questions, scientistsfollowed around seven families from different ethnic and socioeconomicbackgrounds, a group with 18 people, three dogs and a cat. They trained thefamilies how to take swabs to capture snapshots of microbial populations fromdifferent places—their skin, floors, countertops, doorknobs—at various times,over the course of six weeks. Researchers then used advanced sequencingtechniques to find out what bacteria lived where.
    为了回答这些问题,科学家们跟踪调查了七组种族不同,社会和经济地位也各不相同的家庭,共18个人、3只狗和1只猫。他们培训这些家庭在六个星期内,在不同时间用棉签从不同地方——他们的皮肤上,地板上,台面上,门把手上——对微生物族群取样。然后研究人员利用先进的测序技术来查出在不同地点寄居着什么样的细菌。
    They discovered that each person and eachfamily have unique “microbial fingerprints” or “signatures” that they bringwith them everywhere they go—but they don’t keep these signatures tothemselves. Within about a day of moving into a new places, families “overwrite” the microbial signature of theirnew abode, says lead author Jack Gilbert in a video describing the study(below), who is a microbiologist at Argonne National Laboratory in Lemont,Ill.
    他们发现每个人以及每个家庭都随身携带其独特的“微生物指纹”或“签名“——但是这些微生物并不会只待在他们的身上。伊利诺斯州莱蒙特市的阿贡国家实验室里的一位微生物学家、同时也是课题第一作者的杰克·吉尔伯特在一个描述该课题(如下)的视频中说,在人们迁到新居的一天之内,他们的微生物签名就会遍布他们的新家。
    At the same time, this imprint is quitefleeting; if individuals leave their home for more than about a day or so,their microbial trace “decays or is replaced rapidly” in places “such as thebathroom, front doorknob, and kitchen counter,” the authors wrote in the study,published today (August 28) in the journal Science.
    同时,这个痕迹转瞬即逝;个体离开家超过一天左右的时间,他们的微生物踪迹就会在“浴室,门把手,厨房台面”等处”迅速地衰减或者被取代“。今日(8月28日)在《科学杂志》发表的论文中如是写道。
    In a house with one couple and an unrelatedoccupant, the couple, unsurprisingly, shared many more microbes. Marriedcouples and their children also share most of the same bacteria, according tothe study.
    在一座住着一对夫妻和一个外人的房子里,这对夫妇毋庸置疑共享了更多的微生物。研究还表明,已婚夫妇和他们的孩子也共享了大多数相同的细菌。
    Bacteria appeared to mostly transfer inskin-to-skin contact, although the researchers also saw transmission viasurfaces, especially the bathroom doorknob. The study found several potentiallypathogenic bacteria on this surface and on the hands of two of the peoplestudied, although it doesn’t appear the people got sick.
    细菌似乎主要通过皮肤接触传播,尽管研究者们也发现了利用物体表面进行的传播,尤其是浴室门把手。该项研究在浴室门把手的表面和两名被研究者的手上发现了一些潜在的致病细菌,尽管并没有人因此生病。
    Compared with elsewhere on the body, yourhands are a virtual microbial Ellis Island, continually colonized by differenttypes of bacteria picked up from other people and surfaces, only to beextinguished by new incomers or hand washing, according to the scientists. Themicrobes in your nose, however, are more steadfast and vary more from person toperson, they found.
    科学家们发现,相比身体的其他部位,双手就是一个实质上的微生物埃利斯岛[1],不断地被从别人身上和其他地方来的各类细菌占领,又被新的侵入者覆盖或者在洗手后消失。而 鼻子里的细菌则更加顽固,人与人之间的差异也更大。
    Understanding what microbes live on us andwhat they do is important because they affect our health and weight and evenchange how the brain develops, Gilbert said.
    了解我们身上寄居了什么微生物以及它们会做什么非常重要,因为它们会影响我们的健康和体重,甚至改变大脑的发育方式,吉尔伯特如是说道。
    “The lion may liveon the savanna,” he said, “but we live in these built environments [likehouses], which are now an essential ground from which to understand our healthin the 21st century.”
    ”狮子住在热带草原上,“他说,”但我们人类住在这些人造环境里(比如房子),在21世纪,人造环境是了解我们自身健康的基础。
    [1]埃利斯岛Ellis Island:纽约市曼哈顿区 (Manhattan, New York) 西南上纽约弯 (Upper New York Bay) 中的一个岛。它是1892年至1943年间美国的主要移民检查站,于1954年关闭。
    终校:攸宁
    树屋字幕组-文翻组
    翻译仅供学习交流 严禁用于商业用途

    PDF文档下载;
    人体微生物(请使用Adobe reader打开!).pdf (164.05 KB, 下载次数: 0, 售价: 20 树币)

    扫一扫,可以把此帖分享到朋友圈~
    树屋微博:http://weibo.com/thelostworldSG 树屋在天天美剧也有发布资源哦 (http://ttmeiju.vip)
    您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册 新浪微博登陆

    本版积分规则



    手机版|小黑屋|联系我们|树屋字幕组 ( 蜀ICP备16008436号

    !rsf_gtt_lan!
    x

    微信扫码关注
    更新提醒 丰富内容
    一网打尽!

    |人工智能

    GMT+8, 2017-12-12 14:39 , Processed in 0.307039 second(s), 46 queries .

    Powered by Discuz! X3.2

    © 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc. Template By 【未来科技】【 www.veikei.com 】

    快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表